Mahatma Krishan Joo Razdan
adores the Divine Mother
Chaman Lal Raina
The topic, which I am going to discuss, is on the "Shaktivad of Kashmir", with reference to the spiritual poetic heights of Pandit Krishan Joo Razdan. Shaktivad is the prominent way of life in maintaining the grand heritage of Kashmir Shaivism. The primary source of the poetic thought of Krishan Joo Razdan is based on the Puranas, and the applied religious thought of Kashmir Shaivism,read with the Agama Shastras of Kashmir.No doubt, he was a Saint-poet par-excellence; a Yogic in spirit and ritualistic in pattern in his Sadhana. He was singing the songs of immortality within the idiom of Bhakti.His choice of words were chisled, and fermented with the Kashmiri environment, which suggests that he was very close to the Prakriti aspect of the Divine. I am here, concentrating on his representative poems, published under the title "Krishna Darshun", edited by Pandit Sham Lal Razdan, in 1996. Literally 'Krishna Darshun' means the viewing of Shri Krishna, or it can suggest the darshana/philosophy of Krishna the poet. This is a ShleSha word in the Sanskrit diction. It can be interpretted both the ways. Whatever it is ..., the text of "Krishna Darshun" speaks of the beauty of the Divine within the Vedic Ritam, to become the receipient of the Divine grace. It is an aspirataion for Pandit Krishan Joo Razdan, to see the "Satyam -Shivam-Sundaram" within the orbit of Shiva and Shakti read with Purusha and Prakriti.
I would love to listen to the Kashmiri Pandits both men and women singing :“
ब्यल तै मादल व्यन ग्वलाब पम्पोश दस्तय पूज़ायि लागस् परम शिवस शिवनाथस तय
byal tai maadal vyana gulab pamposhu dastai ;
Poozaayi laagay parama Shivas Shiva Nathas Tai----
छख महा वेद्या ज़गत माता
छख महालक्षमी शिव प्रिया
वेष्नु॑ माया छख सर्व सेधा
सर्व शक्तिमान छख महा राज्ञा
Chhakh Maha Veddya Zagath Mata-----
Chakh Maha Lakhmii Shiva Priya
Vishnu Maya Chakh Sarva Sedhaa
sarva Shaktimaan Chakh Maha Ragnya
He says in the " Ragnya devi hunz tvataa / राऽगन्या दीवी हुन्ज़ त्वता:
राऽज़ेश्वरी राज़न हुन्ज़ छख बऽड सरकार
फिर दय लोनुय सोनुय चोनुय रो॑ट दरबार
सथा छे चाऽनी चेय निश अस्य आयि वोमेदवार
अथ त्युथ दितु युथ अस्य करहाऽव पर वोपकार
raizeeshvari raazan hunz Chakh ba'ida Sarkaar
phir dayu lonuya sonuya chonuya ro't darbar
sathaa Chi chaini Tseyi nish Ayi a'si vomedwaar
athaa tyuth dituya yuth a'si karahaiv boDha wopkaar.
The beauty of Krishan Joo Razdan lies in the fact that he prays Shiva and Shakti considering the Absolte both in the Purusha and Prakriti.
He sees an integral approach in paying his obeisance to the Divine.
कथ् कऽर्य कऽर्य गव म्ये लोकचार
अऽन्य आशा नऽन्य तु नादार
करि हे कम कम कार
नचुवुन्य चस नन्य तरवार
आर यियतनय शम्भू
Katha kari Kari gava lokachaar
aar yiyatanai shamboo"
a.an~ya aashaa na.a`nya tu naadaara
kari he kama kama kaara
nachuwunya chasa nanya tarawaara
aara yiyatanaya shambhuu
Further he says:
परमु॑ शक्ती स्वस्त भूल भालै
नाऽल्य छै छुनिथ कल मालय
मस्तानु॑ बे पर वाये
अनुग्रह चु चोन जायि जाये
paramu\\' shaktii svasta bhuula bhaalai
naa.alya Chai Chunitha kala maalaya
mastaanu\\' be para waaye
anugraha chu chona jaayi jaaye
These were the popular Bhakti poems sung by the Kashmiri Pandits around fifties and so on, on the occasions of
व्यूग त्रावुन् माऽन्ज़ि राथ कन्यादान
vyuuga Trawun, ma'inzi Raath, kanyadaan etc I happened to listen to these Bhajans in Satsangs/devotional congregations at Tullamulla shrine .
Bel Tai madal Bhajan was in the air from the Radio Kashmir, Srinagar, as well. These Bhajans had a strong effect on me, in understanding, what the genius of Pandit Krishan Joo Razdan would have been, to depict spirituality through his Bhakti Poems,
in Kashmiri diction, phrase and idiom.
He was a Mahatma. I should call him a Rishi, because Rishi is always a कवि/Kavi, but a Kavi (poet) is not always a Rishi.
Mahatma Krishan Joo Razdan's poetry is integrated with the spiritual ethos, welded with the strong metaphysical approach to find Lord Shiva in Saguna form.
But Saguna Shiva is always with Shakti, hence we have the beautiful Shiva Parinayaa transcreation of the Shiva Puranam, in his native language Kashmiri.
When we go through the Shakti/ Devi Sahsranamas, we read “Shiva Shakti Eka Roopinyai Namah” Verily,
It suggests that Shiva and Shakti are identical in Samvit/pure consciousness and Svabhaava/ nature.Mahatma Krishna joo Razdan speaks of the ShuddhaVidya aspect of the Trika Darshana/Kashmir Shaivism.
A devotional poet always pays obeisance to Shri Ganesha. So did Mahatma Krishna Joo Razdan, in the traditional manner. In his devotion to the Adi Deva Astuti in Kashmiri, he refers to Adi-Shakti, and sings in ecstasy: “
आदि शक्ति हुन्दे आदि कारो
एक दन्त वेद व्यस्तारयो
Adi shakti hundey Adi Kaaro
Eika Danta Veeda Vyastaaryo.”
A great significance has been attached to Adya Shakti in the Agamas of Kashmir. The Adi Shakti is the Primordial energy, who is the Iccha Shakti of Shiva. Shakti is revered with the Sanskrit
ई बीज /
E’ Bija Mantra. which is the fourth phoneme of the Varna-Mala, revered as the Turiya Avastha/ transcendental state of mind. It has the supreme significance in the Chakreshvara Puja , and in the Matrika Pujan, very special to the Kashmiri Pandit religious ethos. Mahatma Krishan joo Razdan Ji further says: “
परम शक्ती हुन्दि सेवा कारो
येछा पुत्र व्यवहारो।
Pama Shakti Hundi seevaa karo,
Yechha Putra Vyavharo”.
The word Parma Shakti is Absolute Energy, which is independent, is स्वच्छन्द Svachhanda.
Therefore, Parvati could create Ganesha through her innate Iccha Shakti /will power. It is the Svachhanda Bhiravi Roopa of Parvati.Iccha Shakti is the Moola Rekha / Base of the Moola Trikona of the Chakreshvara at Hari Parbat. He has referred to Vallabha, in the same Stuti/ ---euolgy, as being the consort of Maha Ganesha. Vallabha is the Shakti of Ganesha, Vallabha means attachment, drawing together, closeness as jivatma is to Parmatman, so is Vallavha ti Ganesha. Therefore, the Kashmiri Prepyuna / Naivedya Mantra invokes the Divine and says:---
वल्लभा सहिताय श्री गणेशाय -
Vallabha Sahitayai Shri Ganeshai.
Ridhi and Sidhi are often used with the symbolic Ganesha in India in the form of Swastika . But Vallabha is within the recesses of heart of Ganesha, which again lays emphasis on the Shakti concept within religious symbols as given by Pandit Krishan Joo Razdan .
He has again used the word 'Avidya', which according to the Devi Atharva Shirsha is to destry ignorance, and evil in the form of Mahishasura and other mighty Rakshasas like
चन्ड मुण्ड रक्तबीज शुम्भ निशुम्भ धूम्रलोचन
chanda-munda, rakta bija, Shumbha, nishumbha, dhumralochana etc.by Shri Durga. The Vedic mantra is"
सा विद्या च अविद्या च
Saa Vidya Cha-Avidya Cha". Devi is both mighty and witty.She kills Mahishasura, for being the very personification of evil and ignorance.
He says in the scene of 'Posh Pooza of Shiva and Parvati: "
लख्मी मीठिय छस दिवान् दामानस
Lakhmi Meethiya Chhas Diwaan Daamaanas".
According to the Markandeya Purana, Lakshmi is the incarnation of Maha Lakshmi, She is none else but the Ashta dash Bhuja Sharika. Laksmi is Artha / riches and wealth, and is the second Purushartha, in the Vedic ethos. Developing his poetic construction on the Posha Pooza, very dear to the Kashmiri pandits during the Kanya Daan ceremony at the Lagna time of bride and bridegroom, he receives the inspiration from the Shiva purana, where ' Maina'--the Mother of Uma or Parvati prays to Maha vidya, which is the first attribute of the Shri Ragnya, revered as Shri Bhavani. She also addresses to Mahamaya, which is the elixir of life in human understanding of the concept of Jaganmata, the Mother hood aspect the Divine, to grace the couple of Shiva and Parvati.What a wonderful message is given by our saint-poet in the Shiva Parinaya.
Further she says that Hari Parbat is the Lila of Shri Sharika. What does it signify? It is the very source of Kashmiri Shaktivad. It conveys the message of the creation of Kashmir out of Satisar by Kashyapa Rishi. Shri Sharika is verily, Sati. Such is the affinity of Mahatma Razdan Ji for Shrika, Hari Parbat and the Chakreshvara. He says: Parbatai Sharikayi Leela Parasui. For Himvan and his wife Maina, Parbat is more auspicious as they want to pray Shri Sharika for the good and auspicious days to come for Shiva and Parvati. The Poshi Puza for Shiva and Parvati would be at the Chakreshvara spot, as per the wishes of Maina. Therefore, Shiva was to come to Kashmir from Kailash, for receiving the hand of UMA,what a beautiful description given by Krishan Joo Razdan!.
He affirms that Shaktipat as defined in the Trika philosophy is the essential feature to receive the Energy force from Shiva through Guru. He describes the place of Nishat for the same spiritual wealth, Dal is the Shakti and Shiva is the Nishat. Dal is the janan shakti --the creative energy and Nishat is the manifestation. Here Nishat should be taken as the Nandan Van, close to Ha'rvan, within the Mahadeva range of hills of Kashmir in the Himalayas.
He sees the Divinity in Radha, the Shakti aspect of Shri Krishna,who along with the Gopis in their ecstasies, as they see the Gopla Krishna every where. Thus Krishan Joo Razdan refers to the Motherhood aspect of Divinity, both in the Vaishnavite and the Shaivite faith. Kashmiri Pandit culture sees no difference in the various incarnations of the Divine. It believes in the
सर्व सौंदर्य स्वरूप ईश्वर
Sarva Saundarya Svaroopa of the Ishvara in the Ice-lingam of Shri amarnath and Sarveshvari Shri Ragnya,
Mahatma Krishan joo Razdan Ji is all praise for Vakh and says "
छै तसुन्ज़ वाऽनी सुय ग्याऽनी छ्हुय
Chhai Tasunz Va’ini Suyi G’yani Chhuyi". It means that hewho recites the Bhavani Sahsranama is verily, a Gyani, an embodied soul with Pragnya--intutive faculty .
To establish his dedication and love for the Divine Mother, Shri Raj Rajeshvari Raginya , Pandit Krishan joo Razdan has chosen some of the names for Maharagnya Bhagawati from the Bhavani Sahsranama and explained their efficacy to understand the spiritual import in those words. Bhavani Sahsranama is a section from the Rudrayamala Tantra.These are Mahavidya, Maha Lakshmi ,Shiva priya, Vishnu Maya,Durga, Sarva Mangala Mangala, Kaalika, Sharika, , Shri Shiva, Chandra bhaga, Vitasta, Saraswati,Gomati ,Send/Sindhu, Jamna/ Yamuna. He has love for the places like Rudra Sandhya, Pavan Sandhya, Godhavari/ gudur,Mattan's Tsaaka, Ganga, Gaya, He revers the Vatak puja. He asks us to have Ekta and Shraddha, Aapya, Lanka, Dwarika, Shabda, Bharamri,and Ulka has been used to understand the geo-physical situations of the country. Tullamulla Nag, is the very breath of his spiritual strength. He receives significant vibrations for his works, in confirmation to the Prakriti as a very complement to Purusha.
In the poem dedicated to Shri Raj Rajeshvari, Krishan Joo Razdan says about Shri Rajeshvari that the Divine Mother is OMKAR in the Tullamulla spring. She is the Ragnya Devi. She incarnates with different colours, and is the Jal Tattva / Primal Water element, personified in the form of Raj Rajeshvari. Krishan Joo Razdan wants to asend to the heights, along with the Raj Hamsas, the mystic swans, who are always in tune with the Divine. Philosophically , he refers to the Ardhanarishvara aspect of the Svayambhu Shiva in SOHAM, where Shri Raj Rajeshwai is the Raj Hamsini, the Vaama ---the left portion of Shiva.
There is the element of spirituality and devotion in the works of this great saint, whose potry will inspire the youth in KP Diaspora. It is hoped so.
|*Dr. Chaman Lal Rain
In my own humble way I call Pandit Krishna Joo Razdan the Valmiki of Kashmir..He is the possessor of pure knowledge and in devotional poetry he has no parallel.
Added By Kashi Nath Pandit